There is increasing scientific evidence of the role of polyphenols in modulating the microbiota
Researchers from the Institute of Vine and Wine Sciences – ICVV, the Institute of Food Sciences-CIAL, the Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja-CIBIR and the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium have published a review that brings together scientific publications in recent years focused on the study of the impact of diet. Special interest has been given in the consumption of wine, in the modulation of the oral and intestinal microbiome and its relationship with Alzheimer’s disease.
Analysis of these publications indicates that the type of diet and lifestyle are emerging as modifiable environmental factors. These can improve the aging process and the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Within the components of the diet, there is increasing scientific evidence of the role of polyphenols in modulating the oral and intestinal microbiota. The latest scientific evidence suggests that pathogenic bacteria present in dental plaque, especially P. gingivalis, could enter the bloodstream. Its metabolites could cross the blood-brain barrier reaching the brain. These metabolites could promote an increase in the levels of inflammatory mediators acting as primary agents for the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In this sense, hygiene and diets that include a high content of polyphenols could have plausible benefits in the prevention of periodontal diseases. Recent studies in in vitro cell models with caffeic and p-coumaric acids, in concentrations found naturally in wine, have shown the ability to inhibit the adhesion of periodontal pathogens to oral cells.
In relation to the intestinal microbiome, studies indicate an interaction between the polyphenols in wine and the intestinal microbiota. These effects have been related to metabolites of polyphenols in wine in particular and in the diet in general, in addition to other microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, to which are added the microbial stimuli of specific intestinal bacteria.
Source: Institute of Vine and Wine Sciences